Video Terminology Glossary E: Video, Filmmaking and Multimedia Words and Terms


Video terminology glossary E

Video Terminology Glossary E...

A comprehensive video terminology glossary of audio, video, multimedia and filmmaking terms.

EAN (European Article Number) - A unique thirteen-digit catalog number assigned to a compact disc in order to identify it when sold commercially. The number, controlled by the EAN Council located at Rue des Colonies, 54-BTE8, 1000 Brussels, Belgium, is written in the disc’s Table of Contents. The U.S. equivalent is known as the UPC. EAN (European Article Number) - A unique thirteen-digit catalog number assigned to a compact disc in order to identify it when sold commercially. The number, controlled by the EAN Council located at Rue des Colonies, 54-BTE8, 1000 Brussels, Belgium, is written in the disc’s Table of Contents. The U.S. equivalent is known as the UPC.

Easel - A device to hold photographic paper flat during exposure, usually equipped with an adjustable metal mask for framing. Easel - A device to hold photographic paper flat during exposure, usually equipped with an adjustable metal mask for framing. Easel - A device to hold photographic paper flat during exposure, usually equipped with an adjustable metal mask for framing.

EAV (End of Active Video) - A digital code used with digital component video signals, marking the end of a video line.

EBU (European Broadcasting Union) - A European organization of broadcasters which, among other activities, defines recommendations and statements for the 625/50 line television system.

ECC (Error Correction Code) - A system of scrambling and recording redundant data onto disc as it is premastered. On playback this redundant information helps to detect and correct errors that may arise during data transmission.

Echo - A wave which has been reflected at one or more points in the transmission medium. Echoes may be leading or lagging the primary signal and appear in the picture monitor as reflections or double images commonly called "ghosts."

Éclair - The first portable 16mm film camera that permitted sound to be recorded synchronously without the burden of enormous sound-recording paraphernalia.  

EDC (Error Detection Code) - 32 bits in each sector which are used to detect errors in the sector data.

Edge coding – A coding system for numbers printed on motion picture film raw stock by the manufacturer.

Edge curl - Usually occurs on the outside one-sixteenth inch of the video tape. If the tape is sufficiently deformed it will not make proper tape contact with the playback heads. An upper curl (audio edge) crease may affect sound quality. A lower curl (control track) may result in poor picture quality. 

Edge damage - Physical distortion of the top or bottom edge of the magnetic tape, usually caused by pack problems such as popped strands or stepping. Affects audio and control track sometimes preventing playback.

Edge filter - A filter that applies anti-aliasing to graphics created in the Title tool. 

Edge numbers - Sequential numbers mechanically printed or optically exposed along the edge of a strip of film to assist in matching negatives to work prints. Also known as: edge coding or footage numbers.

EDH (Error Detecting and Handling) - A system employing codes inserted in a digital video signal in order to detect possible errors and error rates.

Edit - 1. Build a video or audio program from source footage. 2. To assemble film or video, audio, effects, titles, and graphics to create a sequence. 

Edit control - A connection on a video tape machine, VCR or camcorder which allows direct communication with external edit control devices. (e.g., Sony P2, LANC (Control-L and Control-M). 

Edit controller - An electronic device, often computer-based, that allows an editor to precisely control, play, and record to various videotape machines.

Edit Decision List (EDL) - List of edits performed during on-line editing. The EDL can be handwritten list or computerized set of instructions used to direct the final outline editing assembly of the video programs. 

Edit line - The current editing point in the Timeline, as displayed in the Monitor window and used for inserts and deletes. In Adobe Premiere, show by a triangle control in the time ruler with a vertical line down through the Timeline tracks.

Edit point (film or videotape) - The position on the tape were two scenes are joined to create and edit. The end of one scene is joined by means of a splice to the beginning of the second scene.

Edit rate - In compositions, a measure of the number of editable units per second in a piece of media data (for example, 30 fps for NTSC, 25 fps for PAL, and 24 fps for film).

Edit Sync (LEVEL SYNC) (EVEN SYNC) - The relation between the picture and sound records during editing, when they are in alignment and not offset as for projection.

Editing (video or film) – The reshaping and condensing of the raw footage that has been shot in the Production phase of a video or film. Editing takes the raw footage produced for a film or video and condenses it, reshapes it and combines it with other types of material into a watchable movie. (Also see: Digital Video Editing ).

Editing controller - A system to control and synchronize several VTRs, audio tape recorders and other accessories during postproduction. An editing controller uses a dedicated computer, which is built into the controller. 

Editing stages - The progression of edited versions through which a film or video is taken as it approaches completion; a rough cut is an assemblage of Sequences or Footage in approximately correct order with unwanted Takes removed; a medium cut makes an effort to shorten footage down to the approximately desired length and to begin arranging the Sound tracks; when a film reaches the fine cut editing stage, all decisions have been reached; the shots are in the proper order and the sound tracks are completely arranged.

Editing styles - Any of a variety of fashions in film and video cutting. Editing styles frequently change with new technologies and with innovations. The Classic Hollywood editing style of the 1930s and 40s is characterized by the use of match cuts and takes of less than 7 seconds. Hollywood rarely used the earlier style of montage editing, in which many images are rapidly juxtaposed together. Montage was championed by the early Russian innovators.

EDL (Edit Decision List) - A list of edits made during offline editing and used to direct the online editing of the master.

Effect Controls Palette - A small floating window along the right side of the Adobe Premiere workspace that lists the current effects applied to an audio or video clip. Used to adjust the order of effects and change effect settings.

Effective Pixels – See definition: Active Pixels. (Also see: Common Questions about Pixels and Resolution ).

Effects - The manipulation of an audio or video signal. Types of film or video effects include special effects (F/X) such as morphing; simple effects such as dissolves, fades, superimpositions, and wipes; complex effects such as keys and DVEs; motion effects such as freeze frame and slow motion; and title and character generation. Effects usually have to be rendered because most systems cannot accommodate multiple video streams in real time.

Effects stock - Film stock optimized purely for shooting visual effects footage. It has very fine grain to allow easier compositing.

Effects track - The composite or single track that is reserved for the sound effects to be used with the pictures.

EFM (Eight to Fourteen Modulation) - Used on every compact disc for modulation and error correction.

EGA (Enhanced Graphics Adapter) - An obsolete digital color standard developed by IBM for personal computers which was able to display 16 out of a menu of 64 colors at any given moment, at resolutions up to 640 x 350 lines. EGA was used on personal computers for desktop publishing applications, high-resolution CAD programs or other programs where high-resolution, multicolored graphics were required. Several years later this standard was replaced by VGA, Super-VGA and XGA. 

EIA (Electronic Industries Association) - 1. An association of manufacturers in the electronic industry having common interests. 2. The largest trade organization that covers the television and audio fields. EIA publishes a catalog of standards; the most important standards to the television and audio industries are the ones developed by its Parts Division and its Consumer Electronics Group. 

EIA Color Bars - A test color bar signal similar to the SMPTE bars.

EIA RS-170A - The timing specification standard for NTSC broadcast video equipment.

Eight millimeter video (8MM) - A highly popular video system for recording and playback of video images on an 8mm wide magnetic tape. The advantages of 8mm systems are flexibility, lightweight cameras, reduced storage space for tapes and the high quality of 8mm. Eight millimeter video. 

Electret microphone - A condenser microphone that converts (transduces) acoustic energy into electrical energy using electrostatic principles. Instead of requiring an external high voltage power source like phantom power, these mics have permanently charged elements, requiring only a low voltage battery for the internal preamp. Although much improved today, the permanent element charge can degrade over time if mishandled, which is why this microphone design is only used as a cheaper alternative to the standard condenser microphone.

Electroforming - A means of creating a “father” metal master disc by electroplating nickel onto the glass master until a sheet of nickel has been built up to a usable thickness (typically 0.3mm). Although this metal master could be used as a stamper to replicate discs, it usually undergoes further processing to create a “mother” metal master disc from which stampers are then made.

Electronic Color Filter - Circuitry used in video processing which imitates the colored glass filters used in photography. Various color signals are generated and then mixed in different proportions with the video signal. This permits the operator to introduce color changes in the video scene for color correction or special effects generation.

Electronic editing (video tape) - The assembly of a finished video program in which scenes are joined without physically splicing the tape. Electronic editing requires at least two decks: one for playback and the other for recording.

Electronic field production (EFP) – Remote techniques that use television cameras and portable video recorders in the field.

Ellipsis - The shortening of the plot duration of a film achieved by deliberately omitting intervals or sections of the narrative story or action; an ellipsis is marked by an editing transition (a fade, dissolve, wipe, jump cut, or change of scene) to omit a period or gap of time from the film's narrative.

Emotional sequencing – A method of sequencing your video clips with the intention of causing your viewer to experience emotions.

Emphasis - In an effort to improve the already excellent signal-to-noise ratio of the compact disc, CDs (as well as digital tapes) can be recorded with emphasis. If used, the recording is made with a high frequency boost (called Emphasis). During playback, a corresponding high frequency roll-off is applied (called De-emphasis) and in theory, the signal-to-noise ratio is improved. An automatic data flag in the CD’s PQ sub-code, tells the player when to apply the de-emphasis. There have been many problems with the use of emphasis (loss of headroom, wrong PQ codes, and inaccurate de-emphasis circuits) and therefore most CDs made today do not use emphasis.

Emulsion - Film emulsion is the material in which film Grain is suspended; during the manufacture of Film stock, emulsion is painted on one side; when film emulsion is struck by light, the film is exposed.

Emulsion Side - The side of the film coated with emulsion. In contact printing and enlarging, the emulsion side of the film-dull side-should face the emulsion side of the photo paper-shiny side. 

Encoder – software or hardware that encodes digital information.

Encoding - 1. The addition of technical data such as timecode, cues, or closed captioned information to a video recording. 2. The conversion of RGB S-Video to composite video. Energy plots the display of audio waveforms as a graph of the relative loudness of an audio signal. 3. the process of converting uncompressed digital data into a compressed format. Also see: Video File Formats, CODECs and File Compression.

Encoding (color) - A process which translates several signals of information simultaneously from an analog or digital form to a coded form, without an apparent loss of image quality. An encoder usually accepts RGB or YUV inputs from either an analog or a digital source and converts these signals to a full-colored composite or Y/C video signal. In essence this device performs the opposite of a color decoder. 

ENG (Electronic News Gathering) - A process of recording news events by using electronic cameras and recorders (non-film).

Enhanced Back-printing - An Advanced Photo System (Kodak) feature available in some system cameras that enables users to encode detailed information at the time of picture-taking, such as the date and time of exposure, camera settings, roll title or other custom information for subsequent printing onto the back of their photographs.

Enhancing - Electronically adjusting the quality and sharpness of a video image. 

Enlargement - A print that is larger than the negative or slide. Also known as a blowup .

Enlarger - A device consisting of a light source, a negative holder, and a lens, and means of adjusting these to project an enlarged image from a negative onto a sheet of photographic paper.

Ensemble (film) - A film with a large cast without any true leading roles, and usually with multiple plot-lines regarding the characters. It also literally means the group of actors (and sometimes directors and designers) who are involved in a film.

Epic - a costly film made on an unusually large scale or scope of dramatic production that often portrays a spectacle with historic, ancient world, or biblical significance.

Epilogue - A short, concluding scene in a film in which characters (sometimes older) reflect on the preceding events.

Epiphany - A moment of sudden spiritual insight for the protagonist of a film, usually occurs just before or after the climax.

Episode - A self-contained segment or part of an anthology film or serial; a number of separate and complete episodes make up an episode film.

Episodic - A film that is composed of a series of loosely-related segments, sections, or episodes, with the same character(s).

EPR (Electronic Pin Register) - Stabilizes the film transport of a telecine. Reduces ride (vertical movement) and weave (horizontal movement). Operates in real time. 

EPS (Encapsulated PostScript) - The PostScript format and language is a trademark of Adobe Systems Inc. It is a page description and typesetting language, widely used in typesetting and desktop publishing systems. The EPS format is a postscript description file format, easily transferable between various graphics programs.

Equalization (EQ) - 1. Process of altering the frequency response of a video amplifier to compensate for high-frequency losses in coaxial cable. 2. In audio, to improve the sound quality by increasing or decreasing the gain of the signal at various frequencies. 

Equalize - To adjust the tonal quality of an audio clip. As with graphic equalizers found in home or auto audio equipment, an equalize effect can to boost or cut the original signal at different frequency bands.

Equalizing Pulses - Synchronization pulses of double frequency and of short period leading and following the vertical sync. Proper equalizing pulses are needed for picture stability on the screen, for proper vertical deflection, interlacing and for PAL switch generation. Missing or distorted equalizing pulses can cause misalignment of the video image on the screen, skewing effect, color distortion and loss.

Establishing Shot - Usually a long (wide-angle or full) shot at the beginning of a scene (or a sequence) that is intended to show things from a distance (often an aerial shot), and to inform the audience with an overview in order to help identify and orient the locale or time for the scene and action that follows. This kind of shot is usually followed by a more detailed shot that brings characters, objects, or other figures closer. A re-establishing shot repeats an establishing shot near the end of a sequence. Also see: The Long Shot.

Eureka - A European technological developments project, which defined the HDTV standard. 

Exabyte - System for recording/reading digital data using 8mm video cassettes. One of the preferred mediums for sending audio data to CD replicators.

Executive Producer - The person who is responsible for a film's financing, or for arranging the film's production elements (stars, screenwriter, etc.).

Exhibitor - Term meaning 'movie theatre owner'. AKA:  exhib (shortened term).  

Existing light - Available light. Strictly speaking, existing light covers all natural lighting from moonlight to sunshine. For photographic purposes, existing light is the light that is already on the scene or project and includes room lamps, fluorescent lamps, spotlights, neon signs, candles, daylight through windows, outdoor scenes at twilight or in moonlight, and scenes artificially illuminated after dark. Also see: Camcorder Lux Ratings.

Experimental film - Refers to a film, usually a low-budget or indie film not oriented toward profit-making, that challenges conventional filmmaking by using camera techniques, imagery, sound, editing, and/or acting in unusual or never-before-seen ways. AKA: Avant-garde, Art films.

Exploitation film - A sensational, often trashy B-film aimed at a particular audience and designed to succeed commercially and profitably by appealing to specific psychological traits or needs in that audience without any fuller analysis or exposition. This often refers to films with extremely violent or sexual scenes. This is not necessarily a derogatory term and various types include Blaxploitation, Sexploitation, Splatter films.

Export - To save your production to a file or to an external video device. Adobe Premiere can export both individual clips and entire productions on the Timeline to a variety of disk and Web media file formats.

Exposition - The conveyance (usually by dialogue or action) of important background information for the events of a story or the set-up of a film's story. This would include what's at stake for the characters, the initial problem, and other main problems.

Exposure - 1. The process by which film stock is permitted to be effected by light. In film, the process of exposure is photo-chemical. 2. The quantity of light allowed to act on a photographic material.

Exposure latitude - The range of camera exposures from underexposure to overexposure that will produce acceptable pictures from a specific film. 

Exposure meter - An instrument with a light-sensitive cell that measures the light reflected from or falling on a subject, used as an aid for selecting the exposure setting. The same as a light meter. 

Expressionism (and Expressionist) - Refers to the distortion of reality through lighting, editing, and costumes, to reflect the inner feelings and emotions of the characters and/or the filmmaker; a cinematic style of fantasy film common in post-WWI Germany in the 1920s and 1930s, characterized by dramatic lighting, dark visual images and shadows, grotesque and fantastic shots, distorted sets and angles, heavy makeup, highly stylized acting, and symbolic mime-like action and characters. Opposed to realism. 

External flash - A supplementary flash unit that connects to the camera with a cable, or is triggered by the light from the camera's internal flash. Many fun and creative effects can be created with external flash. 

Extra(s) - A person who appears in a movie in a non-specific, non-speaking, unnoticed, or unrecognized character role, such as part of a crowd or background, e.g., a patron in a restaurant, a soldier on a battlefield; usually without any screen credit. Also termed atmosphere people. Also see cast of thousands. 

Extract - To remove a selected area from an edited sequence and close the resulting gap in the sequence. 

Eye-line match - 1. A cut between two shots that creates the illusion of the character (in the first shot) looking at an object (in the second shot). 2. The process of making sure that an actor's eyes are looking at a creature or element that will be inserted later. This is normally achieved by a grip holding a pole in the desired position but some sets have more elaborate methods.

Eyedropper - A tool for taking a color from a screen image and using that color for text or graphics. 


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